90% of the world's flat glass is produced by the float glass process invented in the 1950s by Sir Alastair Pilkington of Pilkington Glass, in which molten glass is poured onto one end of a molten tin bath. The glass floats on the tin, and levels out as it spreads along the bath, giving a smooth face to both sides. The glass cools and slowly solidifies as it travels over the molten tin and leaves the tin bath in a continuous ribbon. The glass is then annealed by cooling in an oven called a lehr. The finished product has near-perfect parallel surfaces. A very small amount of the tin is embedded into the glass on the side it touched. The tin side is easier to make into a mirror. This "feature" quickened the switch from plate tofloat glass. The tin side of glass is also softer and easier to scratch. Glass is produced in standard metric thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 19 and 22 mm. Molten glass floating on tin in a nitrogen/hydrogen atmosphere will spread out to a thickness of about 6 mm and stop due to surface tension. Thinner glass is made by stretching the glass while it floats on the tin and cools. Similarly, thicker glass is pushed back and not permitted to expand as it cools on the tin.


It is a sandwich made of one piece of plastic Poly Vinyl Butyral between two or more glasses. The PVB sticks with the glass, forms chemical as well as mechanical bonds. When laminated with annealed glass, the layer maintains the geometric integrity of the pane in case of breakage. Also it gives acoustic insulation as well as gives protection against damage caused due to UV radiation because it cuts almost 99% of UV radiation present in the sunlight. A Laminated glass is regarded as a safety glass by most of the standards. Laminated glass is normally used when there is a possibility of human impact or where the glass could fall if shattered.

  • Laminated Glass Safety: Ordinary window glass is brittle, breaking into long sharp pieces which can cause serious injuries. The principal feature of Laminated safety glass is that the interlayer absorbs the energy impact and hence resists penetration. Although the glass may break, the glass fragments remain firmly bonded to the interlayer, minimizing the risk of injuries.
  • Laminated Glass Security: Burglars often try to break windows to get inside the house or a building and here the laminated glass plays an important role in resisting their intrusion. Even if the glass breaks the interlayer continues to safeguard the building until the glass is replaced.
  • Sound Reduction with Laminated Glass: Noise gains easiest entry to homes and buildings through windows and doors. Laminated glass proves an excellent barrier to noise, it has better Sound Transmission Loss as compared to glass of similar thickness in the frequency of 125 Hz to 4000 Hz.
  • Laminated Glass Solar Energy Control: While natural light is important for us too much sunlight can also mean too much heat gain inside the building. Laminated glass when used in combination with reflective glass, tinted glass or low e glass provides excellent reduction in the Solar Gains as well as reduction of sound transmission through the window.
  • Laminated Glass UV Control: The major cause of deterioration and fading of furnishings and pictures is the chemical reaction caused by short-wavelength UV radiation. UV absorbing additives in the interlayer in laminated glass can screen out almost all these damaging rays.
  • Protection from weather and natural disasters: If broken, laminated glass remains in its frame, preventing interior damage while reducing flying glass protects people both indoors and outdoors.
  • Laminated Glass Durability: Laminated glass is durable, it maintains its color and its strength for a very long time.
  • Low visual distortion: Laminated Glass is usually glazed in an annealed form, avoiding the distortion caused by roller waves in the tempered and heat strengthened glass. So the facades having laminated glass have sharp reflected images and fewer distortions.


Also known as tempered glass is a type of safety glass that has increased strength and will usually shatter in small, square pieces when broken. It is used when strength, thermal resistance and safety are important considerations. At home you are likely to find toughened glass in shower and sliding glass patio doors. In commercial structures it is used in unframed assemblies such as frameless doors, structurally loaded applications and any glass where there is a danger of human impact. Toughened glass is typically four to six times the strength of annealed glass.
Although toughened glass is most susceptible to breakage via edge damage, breakage can also occur from impacts in the centre of the glass pane. Tempered glass is made from normal annealed glass via a thermal tempering process in which the glass is subjected to heat till its softening point and then rapidly cooled. This gives the glass its strength. A fully tempered glass is 4 to 5 times stronger then an annealed glass of similar thickness. A fully tempered glass is regarded as a safety glass and when it breaks it disintegrates into small blunt pieces which greatly reduce the chances of injuries and if there are any then they are superficial in nature.

  • Strength : Fully tempered glass is generally 4 to 5 times stronger than annealed glass and twice as strong as heat strengthened glass of similar thickness, size and type. For a fully tempered glass the minimum surface compression is 10000 psi and for a heat strengthened glass is 4000-7000 psi for 6 mm glass.
  • Safety : When broken by impact, fully tempered glass immediately disintegrates into relatively small pieces thereby greatly reducing the likelihood of serious cutting or piercing injuries in comparison with ordinary annealed glass.
  • Edge Strength : The fully tempered glass has a high edge strength as compared to normal annealed glass. This gives freedom to designers to use the tempered glass in spider glazing and point fixed glazing.
  • Thermal Breakage : When direct sunlight falls on a pane of glass then the glass surface tends to heat up. This heating is not uniform in nature. The central part that is exposed gets more sunlight and heats up faster while the edges are relatively cooler. This creates temperature difference inside the same pane of glass and when it crosses a certain limit there is a chance of thermal breakage. But a fully tempered glass has significantly higher edge strength to withstand chances of thermal breakage.
A fully tempered glass is used in most modern glass facade, where glass strength is required. A fully tempered glass is recommended for windows that are on high floors or skylights where people are required to stand on top for cleaning. Also areas where risk of thermal breakage or impact breakage is high, fully tempered glass should be used so as to avoid risk of injury. Glass strength is also required in point fixed glazing, bolted and patch fittings.


Ordinary tinted glass is popular because it reduces heat gain and carbon emmissions, although it also marginally reduces visible light transmission.High Performance or Low-e tinted glass or spectrally selective tinted glass reduces solar heat gain to below that of ordinary bronze/ gray tint but has a visible transmittance closer to clear glass. The tint has little effect on the U-factor but reduces solar gain considerably, which can reduce the need for air conditioning in the summer. Tinted glass is useful in controlling glare - especially for those windows facing east or north east. Return the sunlight not glare into your home!
Features and Benefits of Tinted Glass:

  • Reduction in glare
  • Privacy during daylight
  • Designer appearance
  • Lower external reflectance
  • Solar control
  • Increase in property value
Tinted glass can reduce UV transmittance and visible light, so when strategically placed, it will reduce the transfer of heat and improve comfort. In fact, tinted glass can reduce the solar heat transmission by 30-50% when compared to ordinary clear float glass, especially if used in an insulated glass unit for double glazed windows and doors. The solar energy is attracted to the darker shade of glass and is absorbed while the air draws this heat away from the building and its users. Also, it can be an alternative to Low-e glass in double glazed units, when glass colour is important.

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